Permaculture and peace in the Middle East (#journal)

Exploring The Impact of Climate Change on the Outbreak of Early 21st Century Violence in the Middle East and North Africa and the Potential of Permaculture as an Effective Adaptation 

Considering the ongoing violence in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, especially within Syria and Iraq, it is essential to provide an accurate explanation of causes. In addition to discussing the climate-related concerns associated with the emergence of violence, this paper considers how tackling the environmental crisis in MENA will improve living standards and lead towards sustainable development. As a supplement to a range of secondary data, a small selection of individuals who have escaped the recent conflicts have been interviewed. Because this sample pool is small, and the ongoing violence precludes fieldwork, this study provides only a preliminary exploration of the topic. As a potential adaptation to climate change in the region, permaculture is presented through illustrations of its capabilities for redressing some of the underlying causes of violence in the region.